Religious institutions from the eastern seaboard, in particular, battled for possession of the West. Williams viewed the frontier concept as a tool to promote democracy through both world wars, to endorse spending on foreign aid, and motivate action against totalitarianism. Turner never published a major book on the frontier for which he did 40 years of research. According to the theory, the Germanic race appeared and evolved in the ancient Teutonic forests, endowed with a great capacity for politics and government. Email required Address never made public. Philosophy of history , the study either of the historical process and its development or of the methods used by historians to understand their material.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Slatta, “Taking Our Myths Seriously. They also became more violent, more individualistic, more distrustful of authority, less artistic, less scientific, and more dependent on ad-hoc organizations they formed themselves. Turner’s essay reached triumphalist heights in his belief that the promotion of individualistic democracy was the most important effect of the frontier. Retrieved 20 April Citing the Census of , Turner is writing to announce the end of the frontier, and consequently, according to Turner, the end of the most crucial instrument in creating a sense of a unique American identity. Turner concludes the essay by saying that with the end of the frontier, the first period of American history has ended.

Some have long disputed the very idea of a fgederick of “free land. American intellect owes its form to the frontier as well. Turner moved to the Huntington Library in San Marino, Californiawhere he remained as senior research associate until his death. Historians, geographers, and social scientists have studied frontier-like conditions in other countries, with an eye on the Federick model. Other historians, who wanted to focus scholarship on minorities, especially Native Americans and Hispanics, started in the s to criticize the frontier thesis because it did not attempt to explain the evolution of those groups.


frederick jackson turners frontier thesis 1893

History at your fingertips. His father, a journalist by trade and local historian by avocation, piqued Turner’s interest in history.

Turner’s emphasis on the importance of the frontier in shaping American character influenced the interpretation found in thousands of scholarly histories. Westward movement, the populating by Europeans of the land within the continental boundaries of the mainland United States, a process that began shortly after the first colonial settlements were established along the Atlantic coast. Census Bureau had announced the disappearance of a contiguous frontier line.

Previous Post Ice, Wolves, Sheet. History of the United States. Turner began his teaching career at the University of Wisconsin in Historians have noted that John F.

Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier Thesis ()

Turner first announced his thesis in a paper entitled ” The Significance of the Frontier in American History “, delivered to the American Historical Association in in Chicago. However, the availability of free, undeveloped land in the West had enabled Americans to go through a kind of rebirthing process.

Turner believes that state lines are artificial constructs, and that regions are really divided by natural boundary lines, such as mountains. Internet URLs are the best. Turner may have had difficulty writing books, but he was a brilliant master of the historical essay.

frederick jackson turners frontier thesis 1893

William Appleman Williams led the “Wisconsin School” of diplomatic historians by arguing that the frontier thesis encouraged American overseas expansion, especially in Asia, during the 20th century. According to Turner, American progress has repeatedly undergone a cyclical process on the frontier line as society has needed to frederock with its movement westward.

frederick jackson turners frontier thesis 1893

However, the work of historians during the s—s, some of whom sought to bury Turner’s conception of the frontier, and others who sought to spare the concept but with nuance, have done much to place Western myths in context. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Disneyland ‘s Frontierland of the mid to late 20th century reflected the myth of rugged individualism that celebrated what was perceived to be the American heritage.


Nevertheless, he made it clear that his historical writing was shaped by a contemporary agenda. John Perry Barlowalong with Mitch Kaporpromoted the idea of cyberspace the realm of telecommunication as an “electronic frontier” beyond the borders of any physically based government, in which freedom and self-determination could be thrsis realized.

Frontier Thesis – Wikipedia

Settling Fermilab, —,” Illinois Historical Journal 88 1 pp. In the thesis, the American frontier established liberty by releasing Americans from European mindsets and eroding old, dysfunctional customs.

Turner concludes the essay by saying that with the end of the frontier, the first period of American history has ended. Retrieved 20 April He also stressed results, especially that American democracy was the primary result, along with egalitarianisma lack of interest in high cultureand violence. The frontier had no need for standing armies, established churches, aristocrats or nobles.

Frederick Jackson Turner

In these writings Turner promoted new methods in historical research, including the techniques of the newly founded social sciences, and urged his colleagues to study new topics such as immigration, urbanization, economic development, and social and cultural history. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

The question is whether their frontiers were powerful enough to overcome conservative central forces based in the metropolis.